What is LASIK Laser Eye Surgery, Types, Benefits, Side effects, Cost - Medicalsworld

What is LASIK Laser Eye Surgery, Types, Benefits, Side effects, Cost

LASIK EYE surgery- Procedure, Types, Benefits, Cost

What is LASIK EYE Surgery?

What is LASIK EYE surgery- Procedure, Types, Benefits, Cost
Lasik Eye Surgery
 LASIK EYE surgery- Procedure, Types, Benefits, Cost
The actual meaning of LASIK is Laser-Assisted Stromal In-situ Keratomileusis, which means using a laser under the corneal flap (in situ) to change the shape of the cornea (Keratomileusis). in this blog check out all the details about What is LASIK Laser Eye Surgery, Types, Benefits, Side effects, Cost in detail.
The necessity for glasses or contact lenses is reduced or eliminated in this procedure by using a highly specialized laser (excimer laser) designed to treat refractive errors and improves vision. The shape of the cornea is changed by using this laser procedure, which is the transparent front covering of the eye.
Although an excimer laser was used many years ago, the development of LASIK is usually attributed to Ioannis Pallikaris from Greece around 1991.

How does LASIK work?

During the LASIK procedure, a specially trained eye surgeon first creates an accurate, thin articulated corneal flap using a microkeratome. Then the surgeon pulls the flap to expose the underlying corneal tissue, and then the excimer laser removes (changes the shape) of the cornea according to a unique predetermined pattern for each patient.
Then the flap is carefully moved to the lower part of the cornea without seams.

How do glasses or contacts improve eyesight in people with refractive errors?

Glasses or contact lenses are used to compensate for the error of refraction of the eye by bending light rays in a way that complements the specific error of refraction of the eye.

In contrast, LASIK and other forms of refractive surgery are designed to correct eye refraction errors to reduce the need for other visual aids.

Ask your doctor if LASIK is right for you. You should not have surgery if you:

  • Under 18 years old
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Take certain medications.
  • Make a lot of recent changes to your recipe for vision.
  • Have thin or uneven corneas.
  • There are eye problems, such as glaucoma or very dry eyes.
  • There are other health problems, such as diabetes, lupus, or rheumatoid arthritis.

What is a refractive error?

In the human eye, the front surface (cornea) and the lens inside the eye form the “focusing system” of the eye and are primarily responsible for focusing the incoming light rays on the surface of the retina, like the camera’s focusing light lenses on the film.
In an ideal optical system, the power of the cornea and lens is ideally combined with the length of the eye, and the images are in focus; any discrepancy in this system is called a refractive error, and as a result a blurred image is obtained at some place.
In simple words, when the light is not focused on the retina, as it should be, your vision is blurred. Doctors call this a refractive error.

When you are planning refractive surgery, make sure that:

  • Compare. Risk and benefit levels vary slightly not only from procedure to procedure, but from device to device counting on the manufacturer and from surgeon to surgeon counting on their level of experience in a particular procedure.
  • Do not base your decision simply on cost and do not settle for the first eye center, doctor, or procedure you are examining. Remember taking the right decisions regarding your eyes and refractive surgery will affect you for the rest of your life.

What are the main types of refractive error?

There are three types of refractive errors:

  1. Myopia (myopia): In people with myopia, a mismatch in the focus and length of the eye leads to the fact that distant objects become blurry, and close objects become sharper
  2. Farsightedness (hyperopia): In people with farsightedness, a mismatch in the focus and length of the eye leads to the fact that close objects become blurry and distant objects become relatively clear.
  3. Astigmatism: In people with astigmatism, the shape of the cornea or lens is distorted, which leads to the appearance of several images on the retina. This leads to the fact that objects at all distances look blurry. Many people have a mixture of either myopia or hyperopia with astigmatism.

When we age what happens to our vision?

In youth, natural lenses have the ability to change shape and strength. This allows us to focus on close objects through a process of changing the strength of the lens, called accommodation.
With age, the natural lens becomes more rigid and loses its ability to change shape. This is called presbyopia, which means the loss of accommodation and the need for reading glasses, bifocal glasses or other visual aids to facilitate close work.
LASIK cannot directly “fix” accommodation, but there are many strategies that can be successful, including mixed vision or mono vision, in which one eye is adjusted for better distance vision and one eye is adjusted for better near vision.

What are the different types of LASIK?

There are many different types of lasers used in ophthalmology.
All LASIK procedures are performed with a specific type of laser (excimer laser), therefore, in a sense, all LASIK procedures are similar. However, there are many different laser manufacturers, including
  • Visx,
  • Wavelight,
  • Alcon,
  • Bausch & Lomb, and
  • Nidek
among other things, has all developed special excimer lasers.
In addition, there are various types of laser ablation, including conventional laser procedures, wavefront-optimized procedures, and wavefront-controlled procedures. Finally, to create a LASIK flap.

What is Wavefront guided LASIK?

Wavefront guided LASIK, also called Custom LASIK or Wavefront LASIK, is similar to conventional LASIK, except that in addition to treating a patient’s basic refractive error, specific alterations in the patient’s eye (high order aberrations) can also be treated.
In Wavefront guided LASIK, special mapping is done before surgery to identify any small irregularities in the patient’s optical system.
When these irregularities are severe, they can affect the quality of vision, contrast sensitivity and night vision. When significant irregularities in the mapping of a patient’s Wavefront are detected, LASIK guided by the Wavefront can be used, and treatment will be based on the generated Wavefront map.

What’s PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy)

PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy) is considered by many to be the first generation of laser vision correction. PRK can treat myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.
During a PRK procedure, the outer layer of your cornea (also known as the epithelium) is carefully removed using a manual instrument.
Your surgeon then uses a cool excimer laser to reshape your cornea and correct your eyesight.

When is PRK a good option?

PRK is a good option for patients with thin or irregular corneas, patients who are predisposed to the chronic dry eye, and patients whose work or lifestyle causes them to have a lot of direct contact with the eyes (example: boxers and fighters).
Thin corneas, dry eyes, and high-risk jobs may result in a patient not being a suitable candidate for LASIK.

PRK disadvantages

The biggest disadvantages of PRK are the recovery time: PRK has the longest recovery time of all other laser eye operations. It takes about a week for the cells to regrow on the outer layer of your cornea.
It can then take between two and six weeks for the cells to become smooth and allow a clear view.
If you choose to have PRK performed in both eyes at the same time (which is an option), a patient usually has to take a week off or drive.
Compared to LASIK, there is also a higher probability of complaints after the operation.

What other types of refractive surgery available?

Other types of refractive surgery are available and may be more appropriate than LASIK for some people.
  • Advanced surface ablation: There are a variety of other techniques that use the excimer laser to reshape the cornea in the same way as LASIK, but without creating a corneal flap. These are generically called Advanced Surface Ablation (ASA) and include photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser Subepithelial Keratomileusia (LASEK) and Epipolis laser in Situ Keratomileusis (Epi-LASIK).

All these techniques consist in first removing the most superficial corneal layer (epithelium), then performing an excimer laser ablation.

  • Phakic intraocular lenses: For patients with extreme myopia, LASIK and advanced surface ablation are not reasonable options. In these cases, a phakic intraocular lens can be used. This lens is implanted inside the eye and can effectively treat myopia up to -20 diopters.
  • Conductive Keratoplasty: Conductive Keratoplasty (CK) is a technique that can be used for temporary correction of farsightedness or presbyopia. CK involves the use of radio frequency waves in the peripheral cornea to cause peripheral corneal narrowing and central pentification.
This procedure is very safe, but its effect is often not long-lasting and regression is frequent after a few years.
  • Intracorneal Ring Segments: Intacs (Addition Technology, Inc.) is approved for the correction of low myopia and for patients with keratoconus in the United States. Intacs are thin plastic segments that are implanted in the peripheral cornea to flatten the cornea centrally.

What are the points for making me a good candidate for LASIK eye surgery?

Refractive surgery is not for everyone. In addition to having a full eye exam to find out if you are a candidate for surgery, there are some questions you should ask yourself before considering LASIK or other refractive procedures.
  • Am I prepared to receive a low but actual risk of surgical complications? Even though modern LASIK is extremely safe with rare complications, there are still times when unavoidable complications occur that can affect your vision.
  • Does my job allow me to have LASIK? Although there are now very few organizations that prohibit their employees or members from having refractive surgery, if in doubt, it is important to ask your employer, professional society or military service.
  • Is my vision stable enough to have LASIK? Although minor changes to your prescription are not uncommon from year to year, if your prescription continues to get progressively stronger (for example, more short-sighted, farsighted or more astigmatic) each year, then you may not be not yet be a good candidate for refraction surgery.
  • Do I have health problems that make me a poor surgical candidate?
  • Do my recreational activities make me a poor candidate for surgery? There is a lifetime risk of dislocation of the LASIK flap if there is significant eye trauma, so people who participate in contact sports such as boxing, martial arts or wrestling do not.

What are the risks of LASIK?

What is LASIK Laser Eye Surgery, Types, Benefits, Side effects, Cost
Eye surgery
What is LASIK Laser Eye Surgery, Types, Benefits, Side effects, Cost

LASIK has proven to be a very effective procedure, and most patients are very satisfied with their vision after the procedure. However, like any surgical procedure along with benefits, LASIK carries certain risks. In order for you to decide if LASIK surgery is right for you, you should be aware of the potential risks and complications and evaluate them carefully before performing the surgery.

1. You can be over-corrected or under-corrected. Most patients are satisfied with their vision after a single treatment, but in some cases you may not achieve good vision initially and may need a second surgery, called an improvement, to refine your vision.
Patients with more extreme prescriptions are more at risk of needing improvement. This improvement cannot be done for several months after your initial surgery to allow your eyes to heal properly from the first surgery and for your prescription for glasses to stabilize.
In some rare cases, you may not be able to benefit from an improvement if your corneas are too thin or abnormally shaped after surgery.
2. You may still need glasses or contact lenses after surgery to get your best vision. It is extremely rare for the average person; however, this is something that you should discuss with your surgeon. In addition, if both eyes are corrected for good distance vision, you will still need glasses for close work when presbyopia develops as part of the normal aging process.

3. Your results may not be permanent. Although this is rare, some patients experience a worsening in the desired treatment effect several years after surgery. This is more common in patients with farsightedness.

What is the suitable age for LASIK Eye Surgery?

Age can affect your entry for LASIK eye surgery, but it is by no means immovable. In fact, there is no fixed age for LASIK eye surgery. However, most LASIK eye surgeons will not perform the procedure on people under the age of 18, as vision tends to change in early adulthood.
Keep in mind that these cases are the exception to the rule, although laser eye surgery has been performed on children with severe vision problems. In general, the average age range for LASIK is between 20 and 40 years.
The FDA has approved LASIK eye surgery for people over the age of 18. However, most providers recommend that patients wait until 20 years after their prescription has stabilized. Read on for a breakdown of LASIK data by age group.

LASIK at the age: 18-24

The FDA has approved LASIK for people over the age of 18, but it may be best to wait a few more years. Our vision continues to change until the age of 24, so it is not often that a LASIK eye surgeon recommends the procedure to people under the age of 25. Military, police, and professional athletes may be given special consideration.

LASIK at the age: 25-40

In general, most LASIK eye surgeons agree 25-40 as the ideal age range for LASIK eye surgery candidacy for several reasons. At the age of 25, prescription glasses and contact lenses have probably stabilized. A stable prescription is one of the characteristics of a good LASIK candidate. Your prescription may change before age 25.

LASIK at the age: 40-55

Even if you’ve been lucky enough to see your whole life perfectly, you’re more likely to choose reading glasses after your 40th birthday. However, that does not mean that you are not considered a good candidate for LASIK.
If you are a non-smoker and in good health and have not had any medical problems in the past, you have a good chance of getting the LASIK eye surgeon the green light for the procedure. A family history of corneal disease, glaucoma, and diabetes are also considerations for this age group.

LASIK at the age: 56 and above

There is no upper limit that prevents older people from undergoing LASIK eye surgery, but many factors must be considered before an older adult is accepted as a candidate. Cataracts, an eye disease that affects older people more frequently, is one of the reasons why someone in this age group is not considered eligible.

What are the benefits of LASIK surgery?

In summary, despite the risks described above, LASIK has been shown to be safe and effective for most people.
With careful screening and selection of patients, reasonable expectations and the care of an experienced surgeon, most patients will be very satisfied with their results. Here are some of the other benefits of LASIK:
  • LASIK is able to precisely correct most levels of myopia (myopia), hyperopia and astigmatism.
  • The procedure is quick, usually only takes five to 10 minutes, and is generally painless.
  • Because the laser is guided by a computer, it is very precise and the results are very precise.
  • In most cases, a single treatment will achieve the desired result; however, improvements are possible if necessary, even several years after the initial surgery.

What are the disadvantages of LASIK surgery?

  • Because each patient will recover slightly differently, the results may vary from patient to patient.
  • LASIK could worsen certain aspects of your vision, including night vision with glare and halos.
  • LASIK may worsen the symptoms of dry eyes in some people.
  • In rare circumstances, LASIK can worsen your vision and cannot be corrected with ordinary glasses or contact lenses.

How much does laser eye surgery (LASIK) cost in India?

The estimated cost of laser eye surgery in India is 500 – 1,500 (USD).
This variation depends primarily on the hospital, the patient’s health, and the complexity of the procedure.
If you are a foreigner, it is helpful to plan eye surgery in India, to have information about the best laser surgery centers and the total cost of treatment including your trip and accommodation one must visit hospital or respective surgery center.
In India, the cost of laser eye surgery varies from center to center from just $ 100 per eye to $ 1500. The exact price will be determined after a thorough examination of both eyes and an analysis of your medical history.
On the other hand, several other centers use older technologies with minimal security and quality, which is far cheaper. A good laser center should have well-maintained lasers and expertise in dealing with complications.
People expect that fees should be somewhere between Rs 25,000/- to Rs 45,000/- INR. What they fail to understand is that some centers may charge you this for very poorly maintained lasers, re-use disposables and do not have the expertise to deal with complications.
I would encourage and suggest you to avoid paying discounted fees by compromising technology, security, and results.

How much does laser eye surgery (LASIK) cost in United States?

The average cost of LASIK surgery performed in the United States in 2019 was $2,246 per eye, according to a report prepared for All About Vision by eye care industry analytics firm Market Scope.
This number is slightly higher than the average price for LASIK performed in the U.S. in 2018, which was $2,199 per eye.
(Keep in mind these prices are for LASIK performed on one eye only. To estimate your total LASIK cost for both eyes, you need to double these prices.)
All the figures quoted here come from ongoing surveys of American ophthalmologists who routinely perform LASIK and other vision correction procedures, such as PRKSMILE and refractive lens exchange.
The actual price you pay for LASIK surgery will depend on many factors, including the experience and reputation of your surgeon and the type of technology used for your procedure.
Most refractive surgeons in the U.S. (71.3%, according to Q2 2019 survey data) charge one price for all vision correction procedures performed with an excimer laser to reshape the cornea of the eye.
In other words, additional automated technology — such as use of a femto second laser to create the flap in the cornea for bladeless LASIK — is included in this comprehensive fee and not priced separately as an “extra.”
But some LASIK surgeons (26.2%) have variable pricing depending on the specific technology used. For example, they may charge more for all-laser LASIK or custom LASIK that employs wavefront technology for a more customized procedure.
Also, some surgeons (2.5%) may have variable pricing for LASIK and other types of laser surgery depending on your refractive error.


LASIK Eye Surgery is always beneficial for eyes as well as for individual personality. It also eliminates the headache of using glasses and its maintenance.
On the other hand, the surgery has its own side effects and risk related with it. One should have proper discussion and consultation with doctor before going under surgery.

If any known person has undergone this procedure earlier, it is advisable to take suggestion with them as well.

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